- Marine/Boat Anchors, Fenders, mooring Buoys, Anchor Parts and Accessories for sale
Problems - Anchoring Problems, Facts and Rules
Fisherman type - Fisherman anchors, characteristics & advice for selection
Mantus - a new generation boat anchor designed to set in very grassy/hard bottom, ranged from 8lbs to 175lbs.
Anchors: An Illustrated History
By Betty Nelson Curryer
available in Amazon
Anchors: An Illustrated HistoryFrom a pierced stone to an anchor capable of holding an oil rig in position, they are all here in this very readable history. And it’s not just the anchor per se that concerns the author, there are sections on such related matters as their manufacture, handling and testing, and on the introduction and evolution of chain cables.
This paperback could have fallen into the trap of many monographs of a semi-technical nature and been just too myopic to hold the average reader’s interest, instead the author has written a book that anybody interested in ships will find thoroughly absorbing.
How To Choose an Anchor
The right anchor depends on the weight of your boat or yacht, the depths of the sea floor , and the purpose of the anchor.
Although not required by Federal Law, it is recommended you carry one anchor of sufficient size and strength to hold your boat for an extended period. You are thinking or buying an anchor - Bigger is better.
Choosing Between Anchors, choosing the right one for your yacht or boat!
Anchors are made from a variety of metals -galvanized steel, manganese steel, iron, and many other metals.
Equally very important as the metal used is the shape of the anchor. This particular series of anchors is designed to have an extremely low center of gravity. This causes the anchors to right themselves and catch the sea bed immediately.
Kedge style anchors are perfect for fishermen, particularly those who use long lines and may fish in areas where the sea bed is particularly rocky sea floor.
Anchors must be heavier than other types of anchors, but they do catch onto rocks better than most other styles.
Another factor when choosing between anchors is storage. Plastimo manufactures a line of folding anchors that take up very little room and are very easy to store. No matter what style of anchor you need, buy something that will hold the weight of your boat.
For instance, a 40 foot 10,000 pound houseboat needs a larger anchor than a 40 foot 6000 pound speedboat.
With so much investment literally riding on your anchor, your boat's anchoring system is no place to cut corners. Your choice of anchor depends on the size and type of your boat, and the weather and anchoring conditions you generally encounter.
Material and duality.
Boat anchors shall be forged from high-grade refined iron, and shall be of good workmanship and free from all defects which may affect their serviceability.
Boat anchors shall be in accordance with plan incorporated in and forming a part of these specifications.
All palms shall be welded to arms, or made
integral with same; and a loosely fitting ring shall be welded in the head of the shank. All welds shall be close. A ball shall preferably be forged on each end of the stock, but a cast-iron ball riveted on the loose end of the stock will be permissible. The key shall be tied on. No chain lanyard shall be provided. Finish.—All parts shall be thoroughly and evenly galvanized by the hot process; galvanizing to consist of not less than per cent pure zinc.
The weight in pounds shall be plainly impressstamped on both sides of the crown.
Anchor Mate by MANTUS
If your boat anchor doesn't fit quite right on your bow roller, take a look at the Anchor Mate from Mantus Anchors Company. It attaches to the bow roller and adjusts to fit your anchor.
The simple, heavy-duty, Precision Casting stainless steel 316L device for boat owners keeps your anchor secure and eliminates wobbling.
The next entry in the ship's ticket - an anchor. As Says: "Anchoring device used to hold the vessel in place while parked at a distance from the coast, as well as in unequipped shores."
For small boats this device is directly from the anchor, anchor line and a stop node.
The main characteristic of any anchor is its holding power. It depends on several parameters, chief among them - is the mass of the armature. There are several formulas to calculate the mass with the main dimensions of the vessel and the size of its superstructure, but as a first approximation for determining it takes the vessel.
The simplest calculation is as follows: for a ship with a displacement of about 1000 kg, for example, recommended that the anchor is about 10-12 kg, for boats with a displacement of 500 kg - 5-6 kg, respectively, and this proportion is maintained for all values of displacement.
Why are only approximate values?
All calculations in the reference books are usually valid for anchors of "Admiralty". Practice shows that not all types of seabed soil, this type of anchor shows the highest holding force is design better suited for certain types of mining.
In general, the nature of bottom soil and the presence at the bottom of the results of man-made human activities in the place to swim should be taken into consideration when selecting an anchor. On all occasions of a universal anchor may not be enough.
It is not excluded that it is necessary to have at their disposal several anchors of various designs and take them on board, depending on the locations of upcoming fishings.
What advice from the practice of selecting an anchor can be useful for beginners vodnomotornikam-fishermen? First - the variety of shapes and sizes. Let's start with the anchors of a recognized type.
The advantages are: flexibility for all types of soil. The most
common model weighing 5, 10 and 12 kg. The cost of these anchors
can be in the range from 650 to 1800 rubles - depending on size.
The disadvantage is that in comparison with other models, the anchors
have a lower holding force.
Anchor increased holding power. In stores you can find an anchor weight in 4,6,8 and 10 kg. Depending on the size of the price can be from 500 to 1500 rubles. The disadvantages are the large dimensions.
This is also the anchor increased holding power, is particularly good on soft ground. Commercially available models at 5, 7,5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 kg. Its geometry it is more suitable for placement on large boats equipped with electromechanical anchor winch. Cost depending on size from 4500 to 28000 rubles.
Another example of high holding power anchors. Usually has a lot
of 4, 5 and 7 kg. The disadvantages, in terms of application on
PVC boats that can carry large, because anchor is not collapsible.
The cost of similar models - from 900 to 1300 rubles. There is a
very compact model of an anchor - Attwood fungus.
To the anchor of a recognized type are also anchors Matrosov, Hall, and anchor-plow (CQR), but these models are less common on the shelves of specialty stores - they have more overall, which may not always be comfortable in small boats.
We can not ignore another category of anchors, which, though not applicable to the concept of an "anchor of a recognized type, but still has a right to exist: a small fleet the most widely used folding anchor-cat (photo 1, 2) .
This stockless anchor on its design features the most ideally suited for use in small PVC boats.
For larger vessels as it could be considered only as an auxiliary anchor - because of its relatively small holding power. But this design has a distinct advantage - the smallest size of shipping, which is particularly welcome, given the very small size of the cockpits of boats PVC. Anchor-cat can be applied on almost any terrain. On store shelves, he meets the widest range - weighing from 1,5 to 12 kg with the mass of 0,5 kg, the price - from 300 to 1200 rubles.
Given that small boats with a displacement of 200-350 kg is sufficient to anchor 3-4 kg, it turns out that the most affordable in all respects - it is an anchor-cat.
Regulatory documents GIFT prescribe on small vessels have one anchor and a rope for mooring. Such a recommendation may be used as a guide for action on small, shallow, enclosed by strong winds, waters and in those cases where the journey takes several hours to one day.
If leaving on a fishing trip planned for 2-3 days or more, and water area abounds and great depths, and inconvenient for mooring beaches, and unfamiliar, then have another anchor in the stock will not too much, especially if it's drogue
This kind of boat brakes and stabilizer of the boat on the direction of the wind and waves. Probably, many faced a situation when you need to make minor repairs of motor (to replace the candle, wedges, etc.), and the wind pulls the ship inexorably toward a dangerous ridge or the fairway. Unfortunately, such designs are not broadly represented in the stores, so at the end of the article the technology of its independent manufacturing.
I would like to offer our readers another interesting design (photo 6). But as soon as a reservation that such an anchor can only be seen as second in the boat. It only works effectively only! on sandy or slightly silted bottoms. When the mass of 2.75 kg, it is easy to hold on sandy soil with a ship deck superstructures developed a displacement of about 2000 kg at a wind speed of about 10-12 m / sec.
Catchability places for spinning and poplavochnika reservoirs are
formed by flooding a partially cut or not cut down forests. In the
North West the most prominent representatives of these waters -
Ivinsky spill on the Svir and the Rybinsk Reservoir. The bottom
of such ponds in some places is a solid koryazhnik. In such circumstances,
anchors easily can become virtually expendable.
With an initial price per unit of about 300 - 500 rubles fishing can go into the category of very costly events, and real hard to hit the family budget. It is therefore proposed another homemade. On the knee during the evening it is not done, but a friend's specialist body repair in the presence of the welding machine can be a time to carve more than one instance of such products.
Constructive - this is the same anchor-cat, whose paws (or more precisely - the bars) unbent at high load. Clutches may be several - from 3 to 6. Clearly, the wire should not be easy to bend. Depending on its hardness, it can be 2,5-4 mm thick
Anchor Rodes & Chain
The next piece of anchor devices - is the anchor line: I do not think that someone from the shipowners' small boats, especially on PVC boat will set anchor chain - unless you use the electric winch. Because the choice to be made from products of natural origin (hemp, abaca and sisal) or synthetic (nylon).
In artificial materials is a definite plus: they do not rot, almost do not lose their characteristics under the influence of water and sunlight, they have much higher strength characteristics, which makes it possible to use a rope smaller cross-section and thickness. Therefore, further discussion will focus on the ropes from synthetic materials. Currently the market is sufficiently large selection of synthetics in a wide range of colors, cross-sectional diameter, explosive loads and types of weaving.
Ground for us - the selection of the thickness and tensile strength. Synthetic ropes with a diameter of 7 mm and above have a breaking strength of over 1000 kg. Proceeding from the premise that the numerical value of breaking strength of anchor rope should exceed the mass of the anchor in 50-70 times, we get the possibility of using ropes with a diameter 7-10 mm in vessels of about 1 m, while applying an anchor weighing 10-15 kg. Respectively, for vessels of smaller displacement parameters of all proportion to decrease, but, nevertheless, recommendations on the ropes start at 7 - 7.5 mm. It would seem that there is a clear surplus of strength, but on the other hand, if you use a smaller diameter, then picked up the anchor, especially when it is separated from the bottom, a thin rope will just cut your hands.
What is the netting to choose?
The recommendation will only be shared: the rope should not be overly rigid. Twisted ropes with a base of polyethylene less suited for these purposes, because subject to significant negative effects of ultraviolet rays of the sun and longer than one season of intensive exploitation is unlikely to survive.
The length of anchor line is chosen in view of possible navigation area. Increasing the length increases the holding force anchors. However, this increase will be felt only within certain limits. Practice shows that for small vessels is sufficient to have a length of anchor rope in the range of 4 to 6 values of depth at the proposed site parking. The length can be increased slightly if the future area of operation falls on areas with strong current or high winds.
Having tried over the past few years, a considerable number of different cables, using as an anchor rope on various vessels of up to 600 kg that's such a cable - or rather, tape, or slings. Its tensile strength of over 600 kilograms, enough for anchors up to 6 kg. Profile allows you to retrieve the anchor from the ground without any negative consequences for the hands, and netting is not too hard, so the sling is well knitted in knots, and harvested in its stowed position takes on board a small volume.
This may be an electromechanical winch - though she is more prevalent on boats with a rigid hull length of 5 meters and more. Especially on the boats with a cabin, where there may be some difficult passage in the nose - as a result of this anchoring should be performed remotely - with the helmsman. On small boats the same retainer - is eye-arm or eye-ring.
How to tie an anchor?
If you have an anchor rope, the ends of which are made a fire (at the end of the loop formed from the very rope by punching his locks, or just related - the so-called "fishing fire"), using simple tools - screw carabiner (Photo 9) - fasten a rope to an anchor and stem rymu on boats.
If the fire on the rope there, knit a rope to an anchor and rymu simple but reliable unit. However, if you anchor with the attachment get in some "strong" position, then the probability to raise the anchor on board without the use of masks and fins can be close to zero. What should be done to avoid this most unpleasant procedure? There are quite a few options available.
Anchor tie is not over the bracket, and for the attachment point on the trend (trend - the joints of the lower ends of the horns and the bottom of the shank). To brace anchor rope tie fishing line, cord, twine - in short, fix something, having breaking load of not more than 15-20 kg.
This retainer will serve as checks (photo 10): if there will be a very strong link, then sharp jerk at an angle to the direction of the initial setting anchor or in the opposite direction, we tear the cord-check - and we lift anchor is a trend.
Anchor rope passes through the bracket, and to a trend already tie knot (11). Remaining end of the return along the rope and fix. The length of this part of the rope, of course, must be somewhat greater than the depth of the anchorage. Thus, if the first attempt fails to pull the anchor for the anchor line, we always have additional insurance.
There are a variety of options, such an anchor is used, as a rule, unequipped shores, it is used yachtsmen. Anchor cable bracket to fit in here, but to trend tallies buoy line (cable, fixed an anchor and furnished with a float that specifies the location of the anchor on the ground). As a float, you can use a piece of Styrofoam or plastic bottle.
Depending on the size of the vessel, the nature area and weather conditions, sometimes there is a need for setting two anchors. Stretch to the shore may be one and two - depending on environmental conditions. If such parking is in the area, where for some reason can wave, it is advisable to orient the vessel to stem the wave. If the waves can not be, then the orientation of the vessel does not matter. And the defining moment will be the convenience of landing people on board.
At the reservoir, hydrological features which you know little (especially
if it is large and open water area of the elements), an important
addition to an existing anchor can be simple device as a segment
length of 70-100 cm krupnozvennoy chain. If necessary, attach it
ponadezhnee, twisting chain on the feet, and then fasten to the
Attaching the anchor rope to the vessel
If we consider the forces acting on the boat, especially when setting the anchor on the wave, the most winning is the fixing point is located as low as possible to the stem. Insignificant, apparently, the difference in height may be critical if the anchor in a number of reasons given for the big wave.
The higher the attachment point, the more leverage and, consequently,
the force acting about the center of gravity of the vessel, which
seeks imbedded nose. The lower on the stem, we attach the anchor
rope, the less chance there to bury the boat into the oncoming wave.
Similarly, should select and install location tow tether when it
comes to towing the ship against the waves.
So, with the anchor line attachment point undecided. Only two ways: with a screw rifle or a simple knot. The main thing - is to ensure a reliable connection.
And another little ruse:
not to come out each time on the tank, do not climb the cabin or in the waves do not get out of place in a small PVC boat - you can use the shotgun on a small piece of rope.
He put on the anchor rope and allows to drag the latter into the
cockpit from virtually any place in the boat. With little excitement
and a slight wind like device allows you to fix the anchor rope,
not only on the stem, but also anywhere in the board, equipped for
such a fixation, giving the possibility to put the boat at a right
angle to the wind.
And another aspect to be raised - fixing the anchor in its stowed position. The urgency of this, unfortunately, shows the sad statistics on water bodies: the neglect of a reliable fastening of the anchor on the transitions, especially when traveling in the planing mode, the cause of a series of tragedies - because of the uncontrolled loss of an anchor over the side at high speed.
To prevent scratches and dings to your boat use Anchor rollers make weighing and dropping anchor easier on your boat or yacht and you.
If we talk about a folding anchor, a cat, then as a container for storing the folded anchor is well suited cut plastic vent or fanovoy pipe diameter from 50 mm to 110 mm (diameter pipe for the container is selected, it is clear, based on the dimensions of the armature). It seems to me that the Sewage pipes for such installations is preferred, because among the accessories there are plugs. Looks like a container may be like this (photo 15). At the bottom of the chimney cap is installed, it drilled several technological holes to drain the water and bottom sludge residue left on the anchor legs after the climb. At crossings, particularly at the wave and moving in the planing mode, the anchor further attached to the container carbine. Such a container is quite appropriate, and small PVC boats. His attachment can be done on existing fittings of the boat or in the cockpit.
One of the requirements for the anchor device is that, if necessary, the anchor should be given as soon as possible. This requirement implies that the anchor rope is stowed or in a bay or on the coil, then the rope will not hang out on the cockpit and get underfoot.
I'd like to make a reservation, that the anchor was completely successfully tested on our vast expanses of water. Design, collected originally as a working prototype, already serves more than one season.
She does not pretend to perfection and the highest flying of design ideas and, moreover, some artistic refinement. This is just my attempt to minimize the labor, time and cost, applying only to their own work using a minimal set of tools and supplies.
The anchor is designed for small boats up to 430 cm and the displacement of up to 350-400 kg, as the most frequently used for fishing. Based on this and will be given to the approximate sizes. Variations in size within plus / minus 10-15% were acceptable and would have no significant effect on reducing consumer quality homemade products.
Basis - a skeleton of the future drogue - can be any sufficiently strong and rigid plastic or metal hoop with a diameter 300 - 400 mm.
Naturally, the stronger will be stocking up, the better. It is desirable that it is resistant to corrosion. That can be found from the randomly by hand? Top, carefully cut off the plastic buckets or drums from the paint.
Even if you do not find anything like this, you should not lose heart. Many stores building products are available in large range of aluminum pipe with a diameter of 8-15 mm with a wall thickness of 1,5-2,5 mm, the segments of pipe length 1,2-1,5 m quite suitable for this purpose.
If possible, it is better to bend from the pipe ring with benders, but if that is not currently found under the arms, as the patterns are quite amiss old metal pails, wheel disks, etc.
Will it eventually exact a circle or oval - should not worry, it will work just as good. Importantly, to the ends of the tube, coiled into a hoop, were recorded some inner insert to provide the necessary rigidity.
For the manufacture of the dome (cone) in most any fabric. Quality of tissue is determined by only one parameter, drogue - a term of his life. Excess thickness and, correspondingly, the density of tissue - this, together with long service life even further and a large volume of finished product that, for a limited living space of PVC boats - is not always acceptable.
Producing drogue for PVC boat, it is advisable to give preference to some kind of an artificial sheet: netolstym avizentu or cordura - given that they can normally sew almost any sewing machine. A life of the finished product is calculated over the years.
So, we buy in the store tourist equipment 1 meter or cordura avizenta. Web width 1,5 m. Purchase cost 80-200 rubles. If it is not top-notch stuff - there is no reason to worry.
Pattern of the dome will look like
In the scheme based on the following conditions:
1. Need by tailoring a meter or measure the circumference of the roulette billet hoops, it must match the length of line A - at this level will be attached (sewn) ring.
2. It is desirable that the dome had a future anchor and output, controlled by the diameter of the hole, which will ensure the stability of the whole structure on the course. Depending on the conditions of production, from a slightly retarding, stabilizing the course of the boat - to use in case of emergency when there is no way to put the main anchor, allowing at least a rough adjustment.
3. After fabrication of the dome, near the outlet will be a kind of anchorage buoy line required for removal from the drogue.
In the case of hard limiting material for the manufacture of the dome, it can be made of three parts, mark, cutting and joining them, as shown in Figure 19, 20 and 21. Join the party 1 and 2 (see Figure 9). On the sewing machine. Better if it would be a double seam with synthetic yarns is not less than number 30. In the absence of a hand sewing machine, a similar operation with minimal sewing skills can be done manually. Threads only need to take a thicker, but the time, respectively, manual labor takes a little longer.
Control for the results look like this. The resulting truncated cone should not be completely crooked. Slight discrepancy planes of the lower and upper circles - is not critical.
The next phase - support to the hoop straps. They can be 3 or 4. But it is more convenient all the same 4 - pairs them easier to reduce to two the fire. To do this, use 2 slices netolstogo (4-6 mm) of synthetic rope not very tight weave. To wrap two ropes attached uniformly on the circle - through 90 °. Knitting can be simple, not very bulky nodes. When fixing ropes on the hoop must be remembered that the sites should be directed to the top of the resulting conical dome. And also made balancing, ie, in suspension hoop on fire he should be parallel to the ground (photo 24).
Next, place the hoop with straps attached to the finished cone and sewed it around the perimeter. For this procedure, if there are no stable job skills on the sewing machine, it is better to use just a needle and thread. All seams, filled with both a sewing machine and by hand, preferably on both sides to protect the thin layer of sealant, or a water resistant adhesive. If in some places, thread, suture elements tear, then glued on the seam will not break.
To be able to adjust the outlet anchors at the top of a truncated cone evenly around the circumference place and sew 3 or 4 belt loops (photo 28), through which the skip rope, which regulates the diameter of the outlet.
This halyard with the rifle will be attached buoy line.
We turn to the framing made anchors.
For his performances do not need a long anchor line, would be enough for 5-7 m. You can use the same cable as for the main anchor. As the buoy line is fine rope smaller cross-section, because its goal - at the beginning of "pay" canopy anchors. With a further rise of large loads on the anchor buoy line will be gone.
Very convenient to wear a sea anchor to the anchor line with the rifle.
Also, with the rifle anchor rope conveniently capture and rymu to stem the boat. If the sea anchor is placed in the event of an emergency on board, for its further penetration podgruzki advisable to use as a segment of the chain length of 1-2 meters to be installed between the anchor rope and anchor.
Especially if the sea anchor is made of lightweight materials.
And most important: spend a pre-test your drogue.
May need some adjustment - they may relate to balance the suspension with slings and magnitude of the outlet.
Anchor store better in a separate bag or pouch along with the anchor rope.
The next item entry in the ship's ticket - this is the end of the mooring.
Different Anchor types
There are many anchor types, Flipper or no flipper, disassembled, and different sizes of anchors suitable use in different types of weather conditions, boats vessels small boats or inflatable, weather conditions and different characteristics, proportions and possible/mix combinations.
Lightweight - Originally called a Danforth or high-strength aluminum Fortress and many other danforth style variations. This Anchors have long, sharp, with flukes designed so that heavy strains bury the anchor completely. Lightweight types anchors tend to work down through soft bottoms to firmer holding ground below, burying part of the anchor rode or chain as well as the anchor itself.This type is popular on powerboats or small boats, sail boats.
Recomended minimum primari/secondary anchor sizes
CQR (Delta style)Anchor
Pivoting shank Coastal Quick Release (CQR) or fixed Delta style Anchors. This plow styles provide good holding power over a wide variety of bottom types makes it a good choice of all boaters. Its shape allows it to reset fairly easily should the wind or tide shift the boat position. The Delta style anchor has...more>>
Simple to build and traditional design Grapnels Anchors. Non-burying variety design with one or more anchor-tines(enough fluke are) digging in and the remainder above the seabed. A grapnel...more>>
"Mushroom" anchors -best in soft bottoms, not practical type for larger boats or yachts but Decent for very small boats to use as a lunch hook.Mushroom anchor can...more>>
Bruce & Claw Anchor
Bruce Anchor is known generically as a "claw type anchor". Claw-types have the good reputation of not breaking set, quickly in most sea beds and although not an articulated design. They offer a fairly low-holding most power to weight ratio and generally have to be over-sized to compete with other types anchors...more>>
The fluke style anchor more know us Danforth & Fortress style uses a hinged stock at the crown to which two large flat surfaces are attached. Its compact, light-weight, resistance and flat high-performance design make it easy to...more>>
Anchors for smaller vessels
Shipbuilders, ship designing, anchor devices, and the sailors, they are used, have found that holding power anchors of the same design varies greatly depending on their weight. For example, if you take an anchor weight of 3 ton Hall and his drawings to produce a similar anchor in, say, 3 kg, the holding power of this "baby" in relation to its weight will be much lower than in the large Hall anchors with respect to the 3ton weight. This is due to scale effects. That is why almost all used the design anchor available in certain (large) weight categories and are available in small quantities. Sometimes vice versa: holding power anchor decreases with an increase in their weight class. Here is the same reason - the scale effect, and this can be explained by the fact that the ratio of the area anchors, which provides resistance when entering it into the ground, it's weight will be in terms of magnitude better at holding power anchors at 3 kg than 3 anchors ts, as the weight increases as the cube and square - the square of linear dimensions. That is why designers should always bear in mind that some designs work well anchor only in the heavy weight versions, while others - only in the lungs. In itself this is less true to the classic anchor - Admiralty, and the proof of this is the fact that the reduced copy of 5 kg is considered a reliable anchor for yachts, boats or motor boats.
The above property of anchors has led many inventors to look for new solutions in building design retractable anchors for these relatively small vessels as tugs, trawlers, pleasure boats, etc. lotsboty The correct choice of a particular type of anchor for the planned ship small tonnage - a very important question. Often, a designer, performing their calculations all regulations USSR Register, is not able to make a ship anchor gear easy enough. And not every boat builders comes to mind is to abandon the traditional and, many believe, a universal anchor the Hall and take a new design of the anchor increased holding power, which can sometimes reduce the mass (anchor weight) of the anchor twice.
When designed hydrofoil "Satellite", estimated that the total mass of its two traditional bower Hall is 630 kg. The replacement of the type anchor could do only one anchor HP of high weight of 125 kg, and instead of 200 m anchor chain 20 mm and weighing 1760 kg was used steel cable with a length of 125 m, a diameter of 14 mm and weighing only 85 kg. This, as experience has shown, was enough. Western European Shipbuilders, designing tugs, small vehicles and fishing vessels, avoiding use anchor Hall when you need an anchor weighing less than half a ton. In these cases, they prefer so-called "clip-anchor" - anchor lightweight design, the proposed early in this century British engineer Griffin (pic below). Currently used abroad for at least a dozen variations of clip-anchor in the 50-500 kg. They are used successfully and on powerboats.
Yacht and PowerBoats Anchors
The love of the water element, boats, oars and sail is inherent in people with primitive times. The man was old, shipbuilders, sailors, fishermen, and remains so today. If today the number of military, commercial and fishing vessels in operation, hundreds of thousands, the number of units "Mosquito Fleet" - yachts, boats and boats of various types in the millions. And all of them, may be except for the little ones, there is an anchor. Millions of anchors! Hundreds of designs!
Anchoring device for small vessels - this is an area of boat building, which attracted the attention of thousands of inventors in different countries. The desire to provide a small boat easy, convenient and reliable way to anchor pushed inventive people of various professions. This makes us view the patent at the small anchor, issued in the USSR, Britain, France, Italy, USA, Japan and other countries. The number of anchor patentsis huge!
But drawing an anchor placed on the card of a patent or copyright in the certificate, it is not anchored, the only bid on a particular idea or principle of construction. A design of such devices responsible, as an anchor of experience must be verified, tested in practice. That is why the author does not take courage to lead in this book talk about anchors that do not pass baptism of fire and not yet earned the trust of those who use them.
Tell only those designs of small anchors used on ships, drawings
and photographs which appear on the pages of foreign catalogs and
magazines in sailing and powerboat sport. First, we note that these
vessels, as cruise boats and marine craft, the vast majority used
the anchor, the reliability of the operating principle is tested
for thousands of years - the Admiralty. Since the design of these
anchors in small weight classes has almost no influence scale effect,
the mass of some of them do not exceed 2 kg. Such admiralty anchors
are pull-out iron rods, which makes their storage on board a small
boat is quite comfortable.(pic below)
The desire to preserve the inventors in the design principle of the Admiralty anchor, and at the same time provide maximum comfort for its storage on the vessel when it is not required, led to the anchor with folding horns and piston rod. An ordinary folding anchor swivel horns and pull rod. This anchor is quite common for foreign yachts and boats.
Anchor of the "Derigo" has a hinged device as horns and piston rod. These anchors are compact when folded, but their structure is complex, and the presence of the bolts and hinges need attention and care because of the likelihood of rust.. Due to the high cost they are produced on special orders, as they say, for an boat amateur. Professional mariners and fishermen are skeptical of such anchors. A great expert on the sea and ships writer Joseph Conrad in his book "Mirror of the seas" are named anchor 'clever toys.' Nevertheless, some foreign firms to produce such an anchor in our days. In vessels of smaller size than the cruising yachts and boats, you'll find most small three-and-anchor chetyrehrogie cat. They are simple, easy and reliable, but not suitable for storage on board - see Grapnel type anchor. Anchor-cat with protruding in different directions with sharp claws does not create a comfort to close the boat and is especially dangerous in the dark, when by chance it may come across or even sit up.
Three variants of the modern anchor designs of folding-anchor of cats are shown in picture below. Anchor-cat can be used on any small boat, inflatable except where a risk of puncture. In rubber boats better service will serve a small mass of anchor-fungus.
Entered in the 50s. into the world of yachts and boats, as they say in triumph, and publicized by many manufacturing companies Danforth anchor for thirty years, their use in large and small vessels showed below, in addition to its good properties, and some bad ones. For example, they are almost unusable for large pebbles. On this ground, they move in jumps, taking in very rare cases. On the "floating" ground, such as slurry, Danforth anchor plunges into a warhead with its paws, deflected upwards. On clay and silt in these solid anchors in the direction of pull of the rope in a horizontal plane and bent spindle shaft. In all types of solid ground anchor Danforth low-mass long slide at the toe of one of the legs and the end of the rod, not taking. But if you really took the anchor on solid ground and pull the rope significant, the anchor is so deeply buried in the ground that one man can not pull it by hand. Danforth anchor breaking the force from the ground up to 40% of its holding power.
In recent years, with the increased aesthetic demands of owners of small vessels appeared anchor made of stainless steel alloys, anchors, metal structure which has a synthetic coverage. The last improvement eliminates rusting anchor, and can significantly reduce the noise in the preparation of returns to anchor or while laying it on a metal deck.
Increase Anchor Holding Power
As already described, since the introduction of the anchors with two working legs before the opening of Henry Hein only one inventor has managed to achieve a significant increase in holding power anchors. Them was the American captain, Albert Its anchor, old patented , for the sake of fairness it should be called a pioneer in the squad of anchors with high holding power. As the principle design of the anchor as a basis for further inventions inventors, it should stay in more detail . Framing the base of two feet, not only expands the frame legs on the ground, but also increases the holding power, without disturbing the anchor to dig into the ground. Holding power increases and the bridge between the legs.Witty is selected form the feet. When viewed from above, they appear to isosceles triangles, set by one against the other bases . The upper part of the paw mowed inside. If you zabiranii soil from the clutches of an anchor buried in part, and the other completely, then continue pulling the anchor-chain due to the difference of resistance of soil on the anchor legs slant will straighten itself. In this paw, sitting in the soil deeply, as it slides on its beveled side up until both legs do not go deep into the soil the same way. Anchor Illa takes exactly ground and keeps very stable.Tests have shown that its holding power on all types of soil, including large pebbles, is 3.5 times larger than any of the patented anchor at the time.- so dubbed this anchor sailors - has been successfully implemented and is currently being applied during the rescue. Today it is available in many U.S. firms in the weight categories from 5 pounds to 10 tons. The principle of framing the movable anchor leg Illa frame, which is used to turn them into the original soil in the 50s. was used in the construction of the anchor Swedish engineer Becker. He patented anchor. Frame anchor Becker also serves as a stabilizer and the capture and significantly increase the holding power. This anchor is not inferior to the value of holding power - Danforth anchor.
The main drawback of the Swedish anchors - it can not be drawn into the hawse.
In the 30's. When far more convenient than Illa anchor, the anchor Gryuzona - Hain is widespread, some farsighted inventors, such as anchor "Danforth", patented a number of anchors legs were close together. This greatly reduced the probability of a pair of powers tending to pull the anchor of a heterogeneous soil. But some makers of construction anchors, which legs were more or less close together, left their patents without changes by referring its anchor on the theory Hain among the structures with high holding power.
Almost every third or fourth cargo ship in the world equipped with just such anchors. To cast a box bearing the legs, no big seizures, projecting at right angles, and bevels allow the anchor to dig into the soil better. The most original cast structure created in 1943-1946 years. Soviet engineer I. Matrosov. To give a stability anchor at the time of entering into the ground, the inventor made on the outer edges of the legs with flanges tides. For a quick ground anchors the design principle used crank: the axis of rotation about the axis of the spindle is placed side-tides, so that by pulling the anchor-chain acts as a spindle rod, turning the legs of the axis of rotation. Quickly getting into the bottom, not Matrosov Anchor comes out of it at the turn of the vessel at 360 °. Anchor securely holds in a weak sand and silty soils and is very stable on solid bottom.
Repeated tests on the value of holding power clearly demonstrated its unquestionable advantages compared to the Admiralty, and the Hall anchors for different types of soil. Matrosov anchors holding power in more than four times greater than that of the Admiralty anchor of the same mass. Ironically, this good anchor in the high weight categories is still not widespread in Soviet courts, although the experimental batch of these anchors was successfully tested in operational conditions at sea fishing boats and vessels.
When you see the anchor Danforth in the U.S. patented several patented in the late 40s. Shipley, an American engineer. Fairly widespread in the world was the ANCHOR.. Its official name LWT or "Light-anchor of the U.S. Navy," but it is usually referred to simply as LWT-short for "Lightweight" . Anchor of the "Meon mark III" is actually a copy of the Danforth anchors. Despite a high holding force, all of these anchors have one disadvantage: they are long and relatively slender stems are often bent. Around since the early 50s. with the intensification of navigation was necessary to ensure anchorage to the more complex navigational and meteorological conditions have tightened requirements for anchoring devices for new types of vessels.
Many maritime countries deployed research and laboratory work to create anchors with high holding power, there was a lot of papers.. Published in these papers, the results of observations of model tests and operating experience of the anchors of new designs almost completely confirm the correctness of the observations and conclusions arrived at by Hein and Danforth..Large studies to increase the holding power anchors taken in the 50s. The British Admiralty. In this work, participated together several specialists working in different laboratories, independently of each other. One of them, the engineer K. Farrell, who began in late 1945 to study models of metal anchors in the 1 / 12 of original size, set a goal - to determine the effect of deviations from the clutches of retractable armature axis of the spindle, as well as their shape and area to its holding power. During the experiments, Farrell methodically changed the shape of the anchor legs - from a long and narrow to short and wide in the same area. Then he increased the area of the pads by 25% and last - up to 50 percent. After that he studied the work of all the modifications of the anchors in the modified angle of inclination of the axis of the spindle legs 20, 25 and 30 °. At the same spindle and anchor trend models remained unchanged. After a lot of laboratory and model tests, based on hundreds of diagrams, reflecting the work of different anchors, C. Farrell, the following conclusions.
-Each anchor is showing its maximum holding power only at a certain angle of inclination of the spindle legs.
-For a given square feet optimum angle of their deviation from the spindle should be reduced by increasing their length.
-More long and narrow feet anchor provides greater holding power.
-Increasing the area increases the holding power of paws anchor, but this power is drastically changed by the smallest changes in the angle of deviation from the clutches of the axis of the spindle.
-Holding power anchors increases as its penetration into the ground.
In tests on cruisers and destroyers are the anchor holding power showed a 17.5 and 13 ton per 1 ton of weight. In 1960, both approved by the anchor model for newly built ships the British Royal Navyand in 1964 approved by Lloyd's Register.In the original version, these anchors have hollow legs. However, their production has been difficult and expensive. Now they are doing, as usual anchor, cast, and although it reduced their holding power in relation to their weight, simplified manufacturing process. Over the past twenty years, retractable anchors with high holding power was patented a few, but those who perform well in practice and were mass distribution, can be counted on the fingers. Consider the most successful design of *Modern ANCHORS* increased holding power. A characteristic feature is the fact that his legs are welded from plates and hollow inside. It has already been approved by almost all marine classification societies and confidence begins to displace the armature Hall. 18-ton "Pulanker" was exhibited at the shipbuilding exhibition in Rotterdam in 1969.Anchors increased holding power, which appeared in the 70's. Have one unique feature - a trend made for the stabilizers, which function as stem anchors Danforth type, but much shorter. They have become an integral part of the trend of modern anchors because their feet as close together as it is known to be an anchor dragging on the roll at the ground. The most successful retractable anchors increased holding power abroad is now considered to be the anchor of the "Union".Speaking of the anchor increased holding power, it should be noted that their main advantage over conventional anchors can reduce their weight by 25-50%. For the designer of the vessel anchor devices such savings may be tempting, especially when calculating the tonnage of vessels device. However, there is a catch - to anchor too easy (although the HOLDING POWER of it is many times greater than would be heavy). Always remember that the anchor needs enough weight-gravity to pull out of the chain locker half the length of anchor chain when you can not erase her windlass or spire. And finally, we must not forget that it may be. a situation where the ship will have to be anchored to bedrock, or even on the stove, where the anchor does not take away. In this case, the anchorage will be provided only by the weight of anchors and anchor chains etched.
In marine practice, sometimes there are situations when you can not use anchor. For example, when navigating in ice anchor is not lowered to the bottom, it can only lay the cut in the ice hole. But even the auxiliary mass kedge anchor-anchor or stop a large ship is great. Therefore, use a special ice-anchor (picture below). They are transferred manually or dragged on skids. Ice anchors usually consist of one paw in the form of a piece of steel shape, bent hook. With these anchors and towing winches or capstans are sometimes dragged stuck in the ice boat. Basic requirements to ice anchors - strength and lightness.
SEA-ANCHOR: More than once bailed out of trouble sailors called sea-anchor. When a small boat in a storm and gets him in danger of being deployed to a lag of the wave, doing their best to keep his nose into the wind. If this fails due to engine failure and there is no storm sail or power feed hurricane does not allow them to deliver, with the bow of the ship overboard give drogue. Encountering significant resistance in the water, he keeps the boat's nose to the wind and waves, thereby eliminating the danger of tipping over, and if a storm the ship near the lee shore, much reduces its drift toward danger.
Small fishing vessels, boats and yachts that have to go out into the open sea, usually equipped with a floating anchor. The most common design of such a sea-anchor is a cone of canvas, sewn to the base is a metal hoop or cross-shaped strut. Go to the hoop attached to three or four delays, converge at their ends in the ring, which became embroiled in a reliable cable, called drektovom. In addition to this main end, with the vessel to the sea anchor is a slim line extractor that attaches to the top of the cone anchor. Its purpose - to facilitate picking sea-anchor to the boat.
The Search for the Ideal
Anchor Wizard, and do sailors have long been thought about to make an anchor safe and more convenient to use. The first thing that they immediately come to mind - to make collapsible anchor.
Sometimes divided along the shank into two parts in the plane of the horns. But it did not give special benefits.
Some artists shared the shank lengthwise into two parts in the plane of the rod. Each half of the anchor used for warping, or as a mooring. However, if one of them deformed, combine it with another, to anchor in quality becomes already failed.
Sometimes produced admiralty anchor, is broken down into five or more units. For example, in England in 1832, Portsmouth Little Wizard Morgan and forge admiralty anchor weighing 1800 kg, which can be disassembled into eleven parts: the gates with horns, three pieces of spindles, two liner, strap anchors and four yoke. Anchors the assembly took fifteen minutes. In principle, this was an anchor and a robust and very reliable, but because of the complexity of manufacturing has not spread.In the over 30's. the last century, a good reputation among sailors enjoyed the collapsible anchor the English artist George Kotsella.He made half a ton Admiralty anchor with an iron rod and removable auxiliary horns, which were attached to the bottom of the spindle bolt with cotter. They demanded from the master of a little trouble in the manufacture and strength did not yield usual.
After receiving approval for their anchors Admiralty Kotsell developed several designs collapsible anchor, the most successful. Horn as a whole, fork on the spindle and the bolt.
Kotsell was a good engineer and theoretician of the anchor business. His brilliant conclusions on the calculation of the anchors and valuable amendments on their critical comments and the proportions of the anchor production in England are set out in his book "Studies in the ship's anchors," published in London in 1856
When, after comparative tests of anchors in Shirnesse. The British Admiralty has issued a large quantity of new approved anchors with removable iron rods, Kotsell looking at one of them, once said: "All the party's no good no good!". He warned the official Admiralty, that the opening of the iron rod to checks too large and too close to the spindle.
Anchor with swinging horns was better and the magnitude of holding power. When the upper horn of the anchor rested on the spindle, the lower was the last corner, close to direct. Moreover, the upper horn, resting on the spindle by pulling the rope, pressed him to the ground, leaving a foothold with the heel in the middle of the spindle, thereby shortening like it, reducing the time, which tends to raise the anchor rope.Shortly after the trial at Woolwich British Admiralty issued orders to the fleet: Every ship launched to the water supply, in addition to conventional anchors, additional spare anchor structure Porter.
It is known that in 1846 - 1848, Anchor Porter, master lost all rights to his invention, patent selling breeder James Hannibal. And one time anchor with swaying horns in England called the anchor of Hannibal. Widespread invention Porter began to receive in the Navy in 1848 after the accident the 110-gun ship "Queen" in Gibraltar harbor Admiralty issued another order on compulsory supply each vessel with an anchor with swinging horns. That's what informed about the incident the London newspaper "Morning Chronicle" of March 31, 1848:
"Queen" - her Majesty trehdechny battleship, one of the best and most large ships in the navy of England, narrowly escaped death on the rocks, if time has not come a powerful steamer, which dragged him from the shallows. Although the ship and rescued, he was heavily damaged, and he threw overboard much cargo and equipment valued at several thousand-pounds. The ship was fitted with anchors Parker. Before the incident, in 1842, "Queen" is also frustrated with the anchors. Porterovskih anchor on the ship was not. Four years after selling his patent to Porter had heard that his invention would have reason to call is not even an anchor of Hannibal, and the anchor of Trotman.
One of the first anchors graced the steam yacht Trotman Queen Victoria. Outstanding engineer and naval architect Brunel of all structures is preferred anchor Trotman, when designing a sail-wheel-screw steamer "Great Eastern". For eight of the ship to forge anchors Trotman weighing 3.2 tons each and two admiralty anchor. This amount corresponded to the size of the ship anchors: length 207,2, width 25,1, 7,8 m of sediment with a displacement 27 400 tons displacement vessels that time the world's merchant fleet did not exceed 7 tons and the emergence of the "monster Brunel" caused a sensation in the world . This "leviathan" could take on board the over 3000 passengers and over 5000 tons of cargo at the same time and deliver them from England to Australia at an average speed of 15 knots, with no port calls for bunkering. On it were written dozens of books and research. Jules Verne was devoted to this ship his fantasy novel "The Floating City." "Great Eastern", to be the largest ship of the world from 1858 to 1907 (until it was launched in 1907, "Lusitania"), during the most violent storms on the open roads advocated not to admiralty anchor, and anchored with swinging horns.
Highly appreciated by specialists of almost all maritime countries that anchor was at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1867, why, when England began to design the first tower battleships, Admiral Halstead approved Trotman anchor anchor as a model for this type of combat naval ships. It is widely used in our days.
Around the middle of the last century have appeared Trotman anchor "brother" - the anchor, proposed by British engineers, one of the anchor plants in the north of England, Batley and Miller. Instead welded to the spindle cheeks, they did a double spindle. At the foot inventors acquire spurs with holes, which anchor during the ascent could lay the hoist.However, the anchors, with swinging horns, there was one serious drawback: they represent a great danger to the ship's crew during their harvest on the deck in rough - moving the horns could injure people. Nevertheless, Porter's invention used in our days.
Attempts to get rid of this "cross" prompted the Scandinavian sailors in the early Middle Ages the idea of anchors with several horns. How would such an anchor or lay on the bottom, two horns at once ready to hit the ground - anchors, found a very wide application. They were made with three, four, five and even six feet.
Extensive use of them and small fishing boats anchors on lakes and rivers
When they began to build monitors, many of them, especially in Russia, large admiralty anchor, huge stocks which prevented the fire the main battery guns have replaced anchor-cats. Now about them, few people remember, but once these anchors was a special name - "Monitor".
Here's how to fix the problem stem Admiralty anchor a hundred years ago in France - in a three admiralty anchor ! If he even dropped "on edge", the holding force is provided by one of the terminal pads. This design though cumbersome, but it is original.
Very similar in operating principle to mnogolapym anchor "mushroom anchor". The first anchor of this type, as proposed in the 40s. the last century, the English master of Portsmouth, Kingston, should rather be called the "anchor-pipe". The lower end of the hollow spindle smoothly into the socket, which took away the bottom edge of the ground.
Widespread use of cast anchor Taylor with "onion" got in the U.S.. In 1903 there began to produce their weight from 40 kg up to 4 m. The diameter of the mushroom cap of the heaviest anchors reached 3 m.
Many inventors, considering the principle of the Admiralty anchor ideal, did not dare give up the stem. They tried to save and dignity, and to eliminate the defects, making the folding stock. One of them - a French engineer by the name of Le Havre, David came up with the design with rotating rod. Two plates fastened together raskosinami rotate on through bolts. Second bolt holding the rod in position. If he knock out, the spindle can be rotated and lay along the spindle. Anchor David hung horizontally under the cathead, and its stock is not above the deck. Let go the anchor fell to the ground, and pulling the rope to the stem, turning around the bolt, take the right to perekantovki anchor position. To stem accidentally caught in the lining of the vessel, the ends of his rollers are made. The design of the anchor was expensive and not strong enough, and it is not widely used. And here is how solved the problem of American stock Northill. He carried it on with the trend so that he not only fulfilled its function, but also contributed to the increase in ANCHOR - holding power.
The spindle is made of a steel rod bent into a horn, which is riveted a triangular foot. At the end of the spindle on the opposite side of the legs pivotally attached to a rod with a float. Once under water, float, lifting one end of the spindle causes the leg to fall down .Anchor was awarded a U.S. patent in 1901, Its author - Hastings engineer from Philadelphia. Shank - cross, bordered with a hoop. On the opposite side of the horn to attach this clever design of two different planes are in the folding of the arc.
In the opinion of the inventor, the anchor will always roll a heavy paw down and always be ready to pick up ground. One gets the impression that the inventor if ordered, "Do what you want, but take away from the anchor rod!" It's much easier to anchor the iron rod with cotter than strengthen these arc! But even then guess it will roll on leg or not.
One of the most original methods, which make it possible to get rid of stock, owned by British engineer "Lakingu". In 1935 he invented the anchor with a massive horn and a wide foot and a long rod with two smaller claws . In seven cases out of ten anchor falls to the ground with his paw down principal on the bottom, he will be resting on three points - the upper end of the spindle, the end of the main legs and the end of one of the smaller pads. In this situation the main foot deep into the soil. If the anchor falls to the bottom of the reverse side, the ground will include two small paws. When pulling out of the action of a pair of forces it will break and will once again be anchored in the above position at three points.
Anchor used for seaplanes, but then lost it, perhaps because of the inconvenience of storage.
You would think that in a book by mistake hit drawing the plow. But no mistake there. This anchor is well-proven and has been in operation for almost forty years.
The inventor - an English professor Taylor - called your anchor in a safe, designated it a combination of English letters CQR, which gives the pronunciation of the word "secure", which in Russian means 'reliable', 'true', 'safe'. It is sometimes called "anchor-plow" or "plow-anchor." It is produced by British and American firms in the weight categories from 2 to over 200 kg. Although the requirements for the plow and the anchor are diametrically opposed (the first should have a minimal resistance to movement, and the second - the maximum), a paradoxical combination of these two mechanisms has generated a good anchor plow. According to the companies producing such an anchor, a CQR excellent anchor
holding power: 18 kg to 1 kg weight of the anchor on a dense sand and 13.5 kg for gravenistom ground. Articulation spindle with plowshare is designed so that if the anchor drop edge up under the tension of the anchor line, he rolls over and still pick up the ground.
in days of yore
When a yachtsman finds that his vessel lias dragged from her berth he not infrequently attributes the cause to his "rotten anchor," but more often than not he himself is solely responsible. No anchor, no matter how good its proportions and shape may be, can be expected to hold a boat if the cable be allowed to fall in a heap on top of it, for in such circumstances it is almost sure to foul. In days of yore, when yachts' anchors closely followed in design those of revenue cutters and other government craft, they were about as ineffective as they possibly coidd be, depending for their holding power mostly on their weight. Short in shank and with spade-shaped flukes, they possessed little natural holding power, were easily fouled by the chain, and broke your heart to weigh. But times have changed and in these days one seldom, if ever, sees a really bad yacht anchor. Some are certainly better than others, but all are fairly efficient if dropped with discretion.
I have written on the proportions of anchors at some length in The. Corinthian Yachtsman's Handbook and do not propose to cover the same ground again, but I would impress upon the owner who is buying new ground tackle the desirability of having a light anchor and a heavy chain. For comfortable and safe riding the cable should hang in a festoon from yacht to anchor, but in heavy weather it will not do so if the chain be too light. Let us consider what happens when a yacht is riding to her anchor in rough weather. We will suppose that the waves are four feet in height and the vessel riding head on to a strong wind. As each wave reaches the boat the depth of water will be increased by 4ft. 0i.e., the height of the wave. Now, should she be riding to a light chain the yacht will probably have pulled it out quite taut, and to enable her to ride the sea she must leap forward in order to accommodate her riding scope to the altered depth. In doing this she will meet the wave with enormous force and one of several things may happen. First, she may drag her anchor; secondly, she may tear out the bitty ; thirdly, she may break her chain ; fourthly, she may ship the sea; and fifthly, she may break the pawls of the windlass, if she be riding to the drum instead of to the bitts as she should be. Any one of these contingencies might lead to serious trouble.
Now, if you use a heavy chain, its weight will prevent its being pulled out straight, and it will hang in a festoon from yacht to anchor as it should do. When a big sea comes along the heavy chain will act as a spring and the vessel will ride in safety and comfort over the wave without shipping any water. Another advantage of putting the weight in the chain rather than in the anchor is that the latter will be handled much more easily when it comes to stowing it, and this in itself is no small boon in view of the fact that the job has to be tackled immediately after getting in, perhaps, fifteen or twenty fathoms of cable. Should you ever have to ride out a gale of wind to your anchor it is possible you may discover that the force of the wind is so great that even your heavy cable is fully extended. In such circumstances it will add enormously to your security if you lower a weight down the chain. The weight could be attached to the cable by means of a large shackle and lowered a few fathoms with a line. It would not, however, be an easy or pleasant job hanging over the bow in a heavy sea, fixing a makeshift- weight to the cable with a shackle, and I should recommend you to carry on board a " Sentinel" (Fig. 7), which is a sort of hook devised specially for the job by Mr. W. Etty Potter. This Sentinel is a very ingenious appliance, but extremely simple. On the back of the hook is a sort of handle by which the weight, attached to the Sentinel by a shackle, can be lifted (Fig. 8). There is a kind of tongue on tlie hook which is open when the fitment is held by the handle and closed when it carries the weight.When it is desired to load the chain, the weight is lifted by the handle of the Sentinel and the hook dropped over the cable. The moment the handle is released, the hook automatically locks itself securely on the chain (Fig. 9), down which it can be lowered to the desired depth with a handline attached to the lower shackle of the Sentinel. Mr. Potter's invention is not very easy to describe, but if you study the accompanying illustration I think you will see how it works. It would be advisable to carry a special weight for use with the Sentinel, as a pig of ballast might be difficult to make fast.
An old condemned 56 lb. weight such as you can pick up for a shilling or so from a scrap merchant, would serve the purpose admirably, particularly if it were a round one with a ring at the top. With these preliminary remarks on the subject of anchors and chains, we can now proceed to the question of how to handle them to advantage. The thing to remember is that the anchor should never he dropped while the vessel is stationary, for if the chain be allowed to run out under such conditions it is likely to fall in a heap on top of the anchor and foul it. You must therefore make a practice of dropping the anchor when your boat is either moving ahead or astern.
Should you be running with a lee-going tide, the method of procedure should be as follows : - As you approach the selected berth, stow the headsails and get the anchor ready for letting go. When you reach your berth, luff the yacht head to wind, but let go your anchor soon after putting down the helm. The chain should be allowed to run out freely, and if you let go at the right moment the vessel should carry just sufficient way to run out the proper scope of chain. By adopting this method you ensure the cable being drawn well clear of the anchor, and the friction of the chain as it passes through the hawsepipe will have the effect of driving the fluke of the anchor well home into the ground. Another way of bringing up under Buch conditions would be to luff head to wind and wait until the yacht began to drop astern before letting go the anchor. The chain should be checked the moment the anchor touches the ground, and then paid out gradually until the full scope has been given. The former, how-ever, is the better method, and less troublesome. If you are running to your anchorage against the tide it will be necessary to stow the mainsail before reaching your berth. To do this the yacht should be luffed head to wind. You can then fill on her again and run to the selected berth under headsails. When you reach the desired spot, lower the headsails and wait until the boat gathers sternway before letting the anchor go. Check the cable when the anchor touches the ground and then pay out the full scope. This, by the way, should be about three times the depth of the water at high tide, provided that the weather is fair; but should there be a lot of wind, rather more cable should be run out. Beating up to an anchorage with a weather-going tide, lower your sails before letting go the anchor, for otherwise when the boat swings to the tide she will charge up over the anchor and possibly foul it. Should you have plenty of hands on board, the seamanlike method would be to lower the headsails before reaching your selected berth and let her jog along under mainsail alone. Then luff head to wind and lower away the mainsail smartly; let go the anchor and check the chain until she has swung, when the full scope can be paid out. If you are shorthanded and doubt whether you can get the mainsail off her quickly enough, your best plan will be to beat up past your berth, lower the mainsail, and run back under a headsail to the selected spot.
The headsail can then be stowed and, when the vessel lias gathered sternway, the anchor dropped and the proper scope of chain gradually paid out.
If beating against the tide, lower the headsails when you reach your berth, luff head to wind, and wait for stemway before letting go. When reaching with the wind forward of the beam, employ the same methods as you would if beating to windward, and when the wind is abaft the beam proceed as if you were running. "With the wind actually on the beam, or almost so, the best plan is to lower the mainsail and sail up to the selected berth under oue of the headsails, which can be lowered before letting go the anchor. Of course it may be necessary sometimes, owing to exceptional circumstances, to depart from the methods described, but always remember that to ensure a clear anchor it is essential that the chain be dragged away from the anchor as soon as the latter touches the ground. However carefully you may bring up there is always a possibility of the yacht fouling her anchor when the wind blows against the tide, unless steps be taken to provent her doing so. The best way is to give her a sheer, or, in other words, to lash the tiller a little to one side or the other. If the wind is not dead aft, and it very seldom is, the yacht should always be sheered to windward. If the wind is blowing straight over the stern it is immaterial which way she is sheered.
Now, although sheering your vessel should prevent her fouling her anchor when the wind is against the tide, it will be obvious to you that at the turn of the tide the conditions will change. It is quite possible that she may then foul her anchor in the act of swinging to the new tide. If it is your intention, therefore, to go ashore and leave your craft unattended until after the turn of the tide, you should moor her. You must remember that it is not the safety of your own vessel that is at stake, but also that of other craft brought up near you. To lay out a kedge may be rather troublesome, but iu the circumstances it is the sporting thing to do. To moor your vessel, you must lay out your kedge astern, the idea being not to secure additional holding power but to prevent her fouling her anchor when she swings. If you have sufficient length of cable, the kedge may be laid out from the yachl. Slack away on your cable until she has run out twice the necessary riding scope, then drop your kedge and haul in on the cable whilst you pay out on the kedge warp. When the yacht is midway between the anchor and kedge, make fast both cable and warp (Fig. 10). The warp should be secured to the cable by means of a rolling hitch (or some other suitable hitch), which should be lowered below the surface sufficiently to allow the yacht to swing over it. For security the end of the warp can be made fast on deck, in case the hitch should come untied.
Of course, if you make it correctly, it won't. Should your cable not be long enough to allow of your laying the kedge from the yacht, you will have to use the dinghy. Now let me give you a word of warning. Evqn experienced yachtsmen are often guilty in this respect, for they are apt t-o take risks rather than put up with a little trouble. When laying out a heavy kedge you should sling it over the stem, secured to the ring-bolt with a piece of rope. Coil down the warp and capsize the coil so that it is ready to run freely, and then row away from the yacht in the desired direction. Keep your foot on the warp, if you are alone in the dinghy, so that you can regulate the speed at which it is paid out, and when you get to the end of the scope, drop the kedge by slipping it. That is the only prudent method; but more often than not you will see yachtsmen carry the kedge in the dinghy and, when they are at the end of the warp, suddenly stand up and throw the anchor overboard. To save being pulled back by the spring of the warp, and thus losing distance, they snatch at the anchor hurriedly, and are in grave danger of going overboard. I have seen many a yachtsman, who should have known better, get a ducking in this way, and I don't mind confessing I have done so myself. I shall never do it again, however, for men, like horses, grow cunning with age.
When moored in the manner I have indicated, the yacht will ride alternately to her anchor and kedge as she swings to each tide and the cables, lying up and down the tideway, are not likely to he fouled by the anchor of any craft that may bring up subsequently. I would point out that it would not be playing the game to lay your anchors athwart stream in a recognised anchorage, as other vessels might get their anchors foul of your ground tackle. Should you, however, be brought up in open water on the coast, and have to ride out a blow to your anchors, you should for greater security moor with your bower anchor leading from one bow and the kedge from the other. In such circum- stances you would, of course, moor with open hawse to windward. If you have sufficient scope of cable, you can moor in this manner without taking the kedge out in the dinghy. First pay out a big scope on the bower anchor and then set one of the headsails with the sheet belayed a-weather. This will cause the yacht to drive away from her anchor, when the kedge can be dropped. Having stowed the sail, heave in on the cable and slack away on the warp until there is about the same scope on each. It is perhaps advisable to have a slightly greater scope on the cable, for should the anchors drag together, one will then back the other without fouling.
The late Mr. R. T. McMullen, when anchored in an open roadstead. made a practice of using in lieu of the cable a stout bass warp, which, owing to its elasticity, certainly affords very comfortable riding in rough water. The only objections to this plan that I can see are the risk of the warp being chafed by friction with the fairlead and the bother of having to coil and dry a long warp after you get under way. If you fear that the warp used as a cable may carry away, you can effect a compromise by riding to your cable backed with a rope spring. To do this, haul in about a third of the riding scope and bend a stout bass warp to the cable with a rolling hitch, or some other that will not slip. Then pay out the full scope again and make fast the warp to the mast. Having done this, slack out the chain a bit more until the yacht rides to the rope. By these means you will secure the benefit of the spring of the warp, and yet have the chain cable in reserve should the rope break. I warned you just now about being careless when laying out a kedge with a small dinghy, and what I said then applies also to weighing the kedge. As a preliminary to getting under way you will have to break out the kedge, and your method of procedure should be as follows: You must first under-run the warp. To do this, haul the dinghy out to the kedge stern first, by pulling on the warp, which should rest in the sculling score in the transom. When you are over the kedge, you will have to break it out of the ground. If you are foolish, you will stand up, possibly on the after thwart of the dinghy, and engage in an unseemly struggle, which, as likely as not, will end in your taking an unexpected bath. But if you are prudent, as I hope you will be, you will pin the boat down by hauling the warp taut, take a turn round a thwart, and then crawl cautiously forward. The effect of this manoeuvre will be that the dinghy will break out the kedge for you, and then all you will have to do is to pull it up to the boat.
Chinese companies are not listed below
SANGUINETI CHIAVARI (Italy)
Leading company in leisure boat sector - Sanguineti Chiavari was
founded founded in 58 in Italy, has succeeded in manufacturing &
developping a wide typology
of standard products and marine parts and also a branch of custom.
standard part of our production include (folding Admirality) anchors made in inos or galvanized steel, deck install. bow rollers and link or stud (test sertificied) Chains and stoppers.
Boat anchors, products assortiment:
-SC 92 ANCHOR
-hot galvanized pool-anchor
-Arms,fixed or folding "Admiralty" type anchor
FACTORY AND BUREAUX
Via S. Rufino 31 - 16043 Chiavari (GE) Italy
Phone. +39 0185 363324
Fax +39 0185 313731
Ometall Company: than 30 years of experience in the marine business.
more of the sail- and powerboat market. Unique sollutions, manufacture concept for both, new and old boats.
Boat anchors, products assortiment:
-Large Size Anchors
-Drag anchor (16 kg ,22 and 27 kg)
Goteborgs Vattenskärnings teknik AB
Oestra hamnen 18
475 40 hoene
XYZ Marine Products - XYZ Extreme Anchor (New York)
XYZ Marine Products - Based in New York creative Company was founded
Our products range include unique and innovative boat anchors.
Analyzed and Tested XYZ Boat Anchor
How we test and testing Details:you can read here
XYZ Boat Anchor Test 01 - How the boat anchor sets
XYZ Boat Anchor Video 02 - How boat anchors set
Boat anchors, products assortiment:
- XYZ - Extreme Boat Anchor
- XYZ Extreme Modular Design Anchor
Its light weight and superior performance, all stainless-steel anchor(Mirror Polished) with choice of Marine Grade Aluminum or Steel fluke, heavy and large size fluke surface - They are a good choice for mud or sandy bottoms and have a high holding power.
The anchor Extreme XYZ Design enables 360° horizontally rotation. Even when pulled from 170° backwards.Anchor Version Stainles 13.5 lbs / 6kg to 23 bs / 11 kg.Boat size recommendations you can read on the site.
XYZ Marine Products
575 Main St. #1514
New York, NY 10044
Ðhone -212 486 3912
Cell-347 622 8898
Boat anchors, products assortiment:
This Anchor is suitable for all vessel types, for sail, power boats and catamarns to 108 feet length and locates securely onto the bow roller. Anchor features 1-piece constructionis, hand made of 316 stainless steel and hand polished, no further need for galvanization coating process. Is not dragged and holds immediatly,even under changing sea-wind or tide conditions. Ultra anchor is easily recoverable with the flat pivot surface on the underside base. Ultra Anchors are note suitable to side Hawse holes, designed for excellence, they work to nicely as stern or bow. Anchor's Certificate of ABS provides long term rust-proof, corrosion-free service, where they're offering a lifetime warranty.
Here's a good 3d animated video showing how How Ultra anchor works:
Address : Davutpasa Cad. Latifaga - Yildiz Sk. Basoglu Sanayi Sitesi
No:17 Davutpasa Topkapi Istanbul
Tel : 0212- 482 41 61
THE NEWLY LAUNCHED DANIK HOOK
IS AN adjustable anchor hook. No need to tie a knot in ... your anchor line again-simply attach one encJ the !,no your anchor and the other end slides easily through the anchor line passage in the hook. The anchor line slides freely through the passage when holding the lever down. When released, the unique mechanism grips the line at the desired position.
It's a quick and easy way to attach your boat to your anchor. This anchor hook can adjust to any depth water without tying a knot. It attaches easily to existing anchor. It easily adjusts for difference in water levels, and posftons your boat anywhere, without ever tying a knot. In addition, the Danik Anchor System saves your prime beach spot when you are out boating. It comes with a special buoy tie, and is made of 100% marine stainless steel. The Danik f Hook adapts from a X" to diameter anchor line and retails for $39.95 Don't leave your boat without it! For more information, call (909) 590-5923
or visit http://www.danikhook.com |BM
The new lightweight(<1kg) "Coope" anchor featured in Sports Boat and Rib magazine | 2011
For more details please visit: www.cooperanchors.co.uk
Keeping Anchors In Their Place
In a perfect world, cruisers would power to the perfect spot, drop anchor,
and not have a care in the world. However, in the real world, you need to
keep track of your anchor, which is where the Anchor Alert comes in handy. Newly redesigned for 2005, this wireless system goes beyond relying on the GPS to sound an alarm if you start to drag the anchor.
The Anchor Alen utilizes a nigh-tech transponder that monitors
any anchor movement. If a significant change is noted, the system
triggers an alarm, Ehch is backed up by a bar graph on the display.
You can pre-set the alarm settings for current conditions. $1,295.
Ascend Marine. Inc.; (865) 671-1000; www.ascendmarine.com
Small boat Anchoring
There is no doubt the mobility afforded by electric trolling motors has changed the face of bass fishing today.
Nonetheless, a small boat angler on crowded local waters may find that good spot fishing can be the superior method for successful bass catching.
...a pair of good anchors
Armed with a pair of good boat anchors and a little technique a sitter is often able to catch as many if not larger bass than his less patient colleagues.
Change the angle
A lot of bass fisherman would probably feel thwarted having to spend hours dragging a crawdad or plastic worm across the same rock pile or bush. However, all the best sitters are able to change the position of their boat in relation to the fishing hole without disturbing the anchors themselves.
This allows them to change the angle of their lure presentation,
or fish related structures, but without alot of commotion on the
Better anchoring technique
What to do if you can't put out more rode
why anchors pull free
But what if you can't put out any more rode? For example, what if you're in very deep water and you simply don't have any more to put out? What if you're in a crowded anchorage, surrounded by boats and putting out more rode would mean swinging into a collision with another vessel? What do you do then? Answer, you deploy a kellet. A kellet is designed to reduce vertical stress on your anchor and increase horizontal stress which is exactly what you want.
Special Note: Understanding that you want more horizontal force than vertical force on your anchor should make it apparent why having a chain rode is so much better than a rope rode. Chain is heavier than rope and essentially acts as a sort of kellet by laying flat along the sea bed (or rover bed or lake bed) due to it's weight. That is not to say that vessels with all chain rodes shouldn't use kellets, in fact, a chain rode PLUS a kellet is an ideal situation in anchoring.
How kellets workThe most important thing to remember about using a kellet is to attach a retrieval line to it! If you send a wait down the rode without a retrieval line i.e. a way of hauling it back up, you will be faced with two options 1) hauling it up with an already heavy anchor or going for a swim to retrieve it.
Boat Anchor Buyer's Guides- Advantages and Disadvantages