The cost for solar panels mounting system - The cost of purchase, installation, and frequent repair
Solar power safety - More effective and less hazardous, the "Class A" roofing solar assemblies and materials
Sourced from U.S. companies,impact and mechanical load testing and Characteristics
Solar Panels &
Photovoltaic panels - energy source
The sun - a source of energy for solar panels
Often the tourists coming for the first time in a warm overseas countries pay attention to the strange mirror devices on the roofs of houses - it's solar panels. So artful way the inhabitants of tropical countries have learned to conserve energy, replacing it with solar energy.
Power Solar Panels
Such aid residents warm countries have adopted quite a long time,
knowing that by buying these batteries, they get huge savings.
For us, the use of solar panels until a novelty in Turkey if such solar cells can be seen on almost every building that we have, they are applied in individual cases. It is believed that in our not so sunny climate, to buy such equipment is too expensive for the average citizen.
One often hears disputes concerning the purchase of solar panels, but few people have accurate information on cost, efficiency and practical use of this energy-saving equipment, it is difficult to determine whether the profits from the purchase, and some are not even aware of the existence of this method of obtaining energy.
In turn, such companies as service stations, gas stations, relay stations of mobile communication, water pumping stations, farms, greenhouses, hospitals, as well as owners of large estates and cottages use solar batteries for autonomous operation of equipment, lighting, as well as space heating and swimming pools. Defining for themselves the benefits of using such "natural" energy.
Solar panels - a reliable long-lasting environmentally safe source of electricity, both for owners of private property, and for various businesses.
Solar panels-not a cheap, but such equipment is used for years and pays for itself many times over. In such developed countries like USA, Italy and Germany and other solar manufacturers have successfully developed the production of solar equipment, despite the fact that these countries are in temperate climates.
Development of solar cells today is not confined to overseas manufacturers, but also domestic companies, which offer many types of solar equipment.
As we all know, progress is not in place - solar modules are developed and used today not only for solar energy private homes and businesses. A host of other industries that are used in solar energy: power spacecraft energotoplivo for cars, battery chargers for mobile phones, calculators, PDA, GPS, laptops, boats or marine use etc.
Photovoltaic solar panels[solar
efficiency] convert sunlight directly into electricity. This
is one of two main types of panels used to convert sunlight into
usable energy, while others (solar collector), convert it into heat.
There is a wide selection of solar photovoltaic panels, made of
various materials, but all of them use the photoelectric effect,
to create free electrons, which form an electric current. Process
of manufacturing panels is complex and involves many steps. This
process is somewhat similar to the algorithm for creating computer
The most common type of photovoltaic solar panels are silicon. These panels require a heavy and rigid support structure to protect the wafers from breaking. Unfortunately, this makes the panel is not altogether unappealing to most buildings and is one of the reasons for which such panels are not practical for cars, which generally have a curved surface. The other main type of panels are thin-film solar panels. This latest innovation, which still enjoys a slight demand (10 per cent of total sales of photovoltaic panels). However, thin-film panels should eventually replace silicon because they're thinner, lighter, cheaper and flexible enough. All this allows to use them in lots of different places. A wide range of other panels is still under development, including dye-sensitized solar cells that have the potential for printing and painting directly on the surface.
Creation of silicon components used by a majority of photovoltaic panels requires multiple stages of production, using sophisticated equipment. Silicon is one of the most common elements on earth and it has all the elements of pure silicon. The panels are subjected to various processes at high temperature to create two slightly different layers within the wafer. As a result of all these processes is obtained by semiconductor silicon - a material that has properties does not seem like an insulator or a conductor and is something average between them. Computer chips are manufactured using a similar process, but they require more steps to create layers of their schemes. When you create a silicon solar photovoltaic panels to the plate is attached a metallic conductor, and a network of thin wires soldered to the upper surface using solder paste. Formed by the solar cells are arranged in a grid inside the housing and pressure welded together and then embedded into the upper protective layer.
Photoelectric effect - an effect that converts light into
electricity inside the cells of photovoltaic panels. When a photon
of light excites an atom deep within the solar battery, enough energy
is transferred to electrons that are pulled out of its orbit around
the atom and become free charged particles. Two different layers
within the solar batteries have different
charges, creating an electrostatic field, which forces the
free electrons from the upper surface, where they leave the cell
through a thin wire creates an electric current.
Photovoltaic panels are used for over thirty years and provide electricity to many buildings, vehicles and equipment. In many homes around the world use them to provide a significant amount of their energy needs, and they are the main energy source for satellites and the International Space Station. Small panels are used to power the street lamps and battery. Even small panels are used for power generation for calculators, watches, toys, lamps and many other low voltage. Although these panels were used for the improvement of experimental cars, the technology is not sufficiently effective for commercial use.
Recent advances in the field of photovoltaic panels have made them lighter, cheaper and more effective. Since the cost of fossil fuels will increase in future, the popularity of photovoltaic panels will continue to grow and will find many new applications include marine applications. panels for sale
Photovoltaic modules are monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous. Mono and polycrystalline modules are distinguished by its higher efficiency, efficiency ranges from 12-18%. Top product is SunPower 305 - 18.7% efficiency.
Amorphous or even called flat solar panels are the lowest cost of marketing. Frankly in our company we are not fans of this technology, for us it is a commercial trick of some manufacturers. Their price is low, but the efficiency of the best reaches only 9% to reach equivalent power with mono and polycrystalline modules must be installed double modules (if compared with 305 SunPower with efficiency 18.7%) ie double the cost of land or roof, double structures and substructures, double costs motazh so will ultimately get the same price as in the more expensive and more efficient solar modules. For their durability does not directly open a word for comparison against mono and polycrystalline.
PV systems are monitoring and stationary. Tracking are divided into two axial-axis tracking and tracking. Fixed systems are mounted on fixed structures, which are regulated in the assembly in azimuth and inclination.
As intended photovoltaic systems are - connected to the grid and island, ie autonomous systems for independent power.
Solar photovoltaic electricity panels
You are thinking about buying a solar electric system for your home or business? If so, this brochure provides basic information that can help you. Solar electric systems, which are also called photovoltaic or PV Photovoltaic systems are reliable and environmentally friendly. They use a renewable energy source - the sun. PV systems for homes and offices is becoming more accessible. PV works best in energy efficient buildings. Thus, adding insulation and energy-efficient lighting, household priborovy and windows is a good idea to reduce the energy consumption of the house to install PV systems. To make PV Photovoltaic systems more affordable, some states offer financial incentives through solar rebates and other programs. Some utilities have net metering programs, which further increase the cost PV. Net measurement means that when your PV(photovoltaic system) system generates more energy than necessary, the excess goes to the grid supply and the meter runs backward. This allows you to receive the full retail price for the power that your PV system generates. This booklet can guide you through the process of buying solar power system. This is not a technical guide to designing and installing the system - for this information, we recommend that you consult with an experienced designer or supplier of PV systems. PV system can be substantial investment. As with any investment, careful planning will help you make the right decision for your home or business.
Solar electric or photovoltaic system - (PV)
Photovoltaic (PV) systems - convert sunlight directly into electricity.
They work at any time when the sun is shining, but more electricity
is produced when sunlight is more intense and strikes the PV modules
directly to (for example, when the sun's rays are perpendicular
to the PV modules). Unlike solar thermal systems for heating water,
PV does not use the sun's heat to generate electricity. Instead,
electrons freed by the interaction of sunlight with semiconductor
materials in PV cells are captured in an electric current. PV allows
you to produce electricity - without the noise and air pollution
- from clean, renewable resources. In the PV system never runs out
fuel, and it does not lead to an increase in oil imports in the
Many PV system components are manufactured right here in the United States. Solar Application Rationalization These characteristics could make PV technology the choice of energy source in the U.S. for the 21 st century. The basic building block of PV technology is the solar "cell". Several PV elements are connected to a PV "module", the lowest PV, sold on a commercial basis. Modules differ in the power range from approximately 10 watts to 300 watts. PV system, attached or "tied" to the electricity supply network, has the following components: • One or more PV modules which are connected to the inverter • The inverter, which converts the system direct current (PST) to alternating current (ORT) • Batteries (optional) to provide energy storage or backup power in case of power failure or disconnect from the network. Electricity PRT is compatible with the network of electrical supplies. It nourishes our lighting, appliances, computers and televisions. Special technique that works directly from DC, are available, but it can be expensive. Before you decide to buy the system PV, there are some things that should be taken into consideration: First, PV produces power intermittently because it works only when the sun shines. This is not a problem for PV systems connected to a common network electricity supply, because any additional electricity required is automatically delivered from a common network. In the case of off-net, or stand-alone PV system, batteries can be used to store energy for later use. Secondly, if you live near existing power lines, electricity generated PV, usually more expensive than electricity from conventional power grid. Although PV now costs less than 1% of what it was in 1970, yet the amortized cost about 25 cents per kilowatt hour. This is from two to four times more than most people pay for electricity from their utilities. Government benefit programs can help make PV more affordable, but they can not match today's price for electricity utilities in most cases. Finally, unlike the electricity that you buy every month in utilities, PV power system requires high initial investment. This means that buying a PV system is how to pay for a few years, electricity consumption to come. Your monthly electric bills will go down, but the initial costs of PV may be significant. By financing your PV system, you can spread the cost over many years, and state benefits can also lighten your financial load.